Deputies said Christopher Todd was arrested nearly 30 miles away from the scene of the crash which happened around 1:50 a.m., Sunday.
The victim, Chloe Sloan, 23, along with family and friends were giving their horses a break at French Landing along the St. John's River near Orange City, officials said.
The victims told police Todd sped up in his Dodge Ram truck almost driving it into the river where the group was. One of the riders went up to Todd and started yelling at him to open his window, deputies said.
Deputies said they told him they were leaving and that he should stop speeding.
After a short argument Todd sped off but made a U-turn and went back for the group, officials said.
Deputies said the group scattered, but Todd intentionally rammed one of the horses when it froze, ejecting Sloan onto the hood of his truck.
Sloan ran into the woods to take cover as Todd circled around the dying horse before speeding away, deputies said.
Sloan suffered a broken collar bone in the incident. The horse died at the scene a short time later.
Deputies arrested Todd for aggravated battery and animal cruelty where he was booked into the Volusia County Jail.